Una ampliación del concepto de Templete: de herramienta para desarrollar ejercicios a instrumento para regular el proceso de desarrollo de los exámenes de ciencias

Guillermo Solano-Flores, Richard J. Shavelson, Steven A. Schneider

Resumen


En este artículo discutimos las limitaciones y ventajas del uso de templetes. Un templete es un conjunto de instrucciones para desarrollar ejercicios; su fin es abatir el costo y el tiempo de desarrollo de los exámenes. Los templetes no permiten generar ejercicios intercambiables desde el punto de vista estadístico. Sin embargo, cuando sus instrucciones son precisas y se entrena a los autores de pruebas para usarlos adecuadamente, los templetes permiten generar ejercicios de estructura y apariencia similarares. Basados en nuestra experiencia y en nuestro trabajo de investigación, discutimos las ventajas de usar templetes como: (a) herramientas para desarrollar pruebas de respuesta construida, (b) documentos que formalizan las propiedades estructurales de los ejercicios; (c) ambientes para la creación de ejercicios que permiten estandarizar y simplificar los formatos de respuesta para los estudiantes; y (d) herramientas conceptuales que regulan el proceso de desarrollo de exámenes. En este artículo también advertimos de posibles usos inapropiados de los templetes.


Palabras clave


Enseñanza de las ciencia; construcción de pruebas; prueba de ejecución.

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