Variación de la equidad en resultados cognitivos y no cognitivos de la educación media de Argentina

Rubén Alberto Cervini Iturre





Resumen


Se analizan el nivel y las variaciones de la equidad en logros cognitivos y no cognitivos, en las materias de Matemáticas y Lengua, en el último año de la educación secundaria en Argentina. Se utilizan los datos disponibles del Censo Nacional de Finalización del Nivel Secundario de 1998, realizado por el Ministerio de Cultura y Educación de dicha nación. El archivo analizado es de 116,894 alumnos de 2,062 escuelas. Se utiliza la técnica de modelos jerárquicos lineales o multinivel, con tres niveles: alumnos, escuela y Estado. Los objetivos son: evaluar el efecto de un conjunto de factores de (in)equidad educacional sobre resultados cognitivos y no cognitivos, la variación interescuela del efecto de tales factores y la consistencia de efectividad institucional. El estudio detecta diferentes grados de variación en la (in)equidad institucional, dependiendo del tipo de logro y del factor de inequidad considerado. Constata también algunas variaciones en el grado de efectividad institucional respecto a diferentes tipos de alumnos, y discute las implicaciones de los hallazgos.


Palabras clave


Logro escolar; educación secundaria; inequidad educativa; efectividad escolar; resultados no cognitivos.

Referencias


Aitkin, M. y Longford, N. (1986). Statistical modelling issues in school effectiveness. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A, 149, 1-42.

Bosker, R. J. y Witziers, B. (1996, abril). The magnitude of school effects or: Does it really matter which school a student attends? Trabajo presentado en Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Nueva York.

Brookover, W., Beady, C., Flood, P., Schweitzer, J. y Wisenbaker, J. (1979). Schools, social systems and student achievement. Schools can make a difference. Nueva York: Praeger.

Bryk, A. y Raudenbush, S. (1992). Hierarchical Linear Models for Social and Behavioral Research: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Carroll, J. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 43 (8), 723-733.

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe. (1992). Educación y conocimiento. Eje de la transformación productiva con equidad. Santiago: Autor.

Cervini, R. (2002). Desigualdades socioculturales en el aprendizaje de matemática y lengua de la educación secundaria en Argentina: Un modelo de tres niveles. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa, 8 (2). Consultado el 12 de octubre de 2004, en:

http://www.uv.es/RELIEVE/v8n2/RELIEVEv8n2_1.htm

Cervini, R. (2003a 10 de febrero). Diferencias de resultados cognitivos y no-cognitivos entre estudiantes de escuelas públicas y privadas en la educación secundaria de Argentina: Un análisis multinivel. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11. Consultado el 12 de octubre de 2004, en:

http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v11n6/

Cervini, R. (2003b). Relaciones entre composición estudiantil, proceso escolar y el logro en matemáticas en la educación secundaria en Argentina. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 5 (1). Consultado el 12 de octubre de 2004, en:

http://redie.ens.uabc.mx/vol5no1/contenido-cervini2.html

Cervini, R. (2003c). La eficacia educativa del sector público. El caso de las escuelas secundarias técnicas en Argentina. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos, 33 (3), 53-92.

Cervini, R. (2004a). Influencia de los factores institucionales sobre el logro en matemática de los estudiantes en el último año de la educación Media de Argentina. Un modelo de tres niveles. Revista Electrónica Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 2 (1). Consultado el 12 de octubre de 2004, en:

http://www.ice.deusto.es/rinace/reice/vol2n1/Cervini.pdf

Cervini, R. (2004b 12 de octubre). Nivel y variación de la equidad en la educación media de Argentina. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 34 (4). Consultado el 10 de diciembre de 2004 en:

http://www.campus-oei.org/revista/deloslectores/844Cervini.PDF

Coleman, J., Campbell, E., Hobson C., McPartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfeld, F. y York, R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education.

Coleman, J., Hoffer, T. y Kilgore, S. (1982). High school achievement: Public, catholic and private schools compared. Nueva York: Basic Book.

Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Nye, B. y Lindsay, J. J. (1999). Relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (2), 369-378.

Creemers, B. (1994) Effective instruction: An empirical basis for a theory of educational effectiveness. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. S. Nesselrodt, E. C. Shaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in school effectiveness research and practice (Cap.10, pp.189-203). Oxford: Pergamon.

Fennema, E. y Carpenter, T. P. (1981). Sex related differences in mathematics: Results from national assessment. Mathematics Teacher, 74 (7), 554-559.

Fraser, B. (1989). Twenty years of classroom climate work: Progress and prospect. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21 (4), 307-327.

Friedman, L. (1989). Mathematics and the gender gap: A meta-analysis of recent studies on sex differences in mathematical tasks. Review of Educational Research, 59 (2), 185-213.

Gerber, S. (1996). Extracurricular activities and academic achievement. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 30 (1), 42-50.

Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel statistical models. Londres: Edward Arnold.

Goldstein, H. Rasbash, J., Plawis, I., Draper, D., Browne, W., Yang, M., Woodhouse, G. y Healy, M. (1998). A user guide to MlwinN. Londres: University of London.

Hilton, T. L. y Berglund, G. W. (1974). Sex differences in mathematics achievement: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 67 (5), 232-237.

Holland, A. y Andre, T. (1987). Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known? Review of Educational Research, 57 (4), 437-466.

Jencks, C. L., Smith, M., Acland, H., Bane, M. J., Cohen, D. K., Gintis, H. et al. (1972). Inequality: a reassessment of the effects of family and schooling in America. Nueva York: Basic.

Kablaoui, B. N. y Pautler, A. J. (1991). The effect of part-time work experience on high school students. Journal of Career Development, 17 (3), 195-211.

Knuver, A. y Brandsma, H. (1993). Cognitive and affective outcomes in school effectiveness research. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 4 (2), 189-204.

Lam, R., Wong, K. C. y Ho, L. M. (2002). School effectiveness of a streamed-school system: A multilevel modelling of the Hong Kong secondary schools. Australian Journal of Education, 46 (3), 287-304.

Lee, V. y Bryk, A. (1998). A multilevel model of the social distribution of high school achievement. Sociology of Education, 62 (3), 172-192.

Lee V. y Smith, J. (1993). Effects of school restructuring on the achievement and engagement of middle-grade students. Sociology of Education, 66 (3), 164-187.

Marsh, H. W. (1991). Employment during high school: Character building or a subversion of academic goals? Sociology of Education, 64 (3), 172-189.

Marsh, H. W. (1992). Extracurricular activities: Beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or subversion of academic goals? Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 (4), 553-562.

Moos, R. (1979). Evaluating educational environments. Washington, DC: Jossey-Bass.

Moos, R. (1980). Evaluating classroom learning environments. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 6 (3), 239-252.

Moos, R. (1987). The social climate manual (2a. ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Mortimer, J. T., Finch, M. D., Ryu, S., Shanahan, M. J. y Call, K. T. (1996). The effects of work intensity on adolescent mental health, achievement, and behavioral adjustment: New evidence from a prospective study. Child Development, 67 (4), 1243-1261.

Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L., Ecob, R. y Lewis, D. (1988). The effects of school membership on pupils' educational outcomes. Research Papers in Education, 3 (1), 3-26.

Nash, R. (2002). Peer effects and peer group processes: Joining the conversation on quantitative and qualitative methods. Australian Journal of Education, 46 (1), 6-18.

Nuttall, D., Goldstein, H., Prosser, R. y Rasbash, J. (1989). Differential school effectiveness. International Journal of Educational Research, 13 (7), 769-776.

Opdenakker, M. y Van Damme J. (2000). Effects of schools, teaching staff and classes ion achievement and well-being in secondary education: similarities and differences between school outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11 (2), 165-196.

Opdenakker, M. y Van Damme, J. (2001). Relationship between school composition and characteristics of school process and their effect on mathematics achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 27 (4), 407-432.

Power, F., Higgins, A. y Kohlberg, L. (1989). Lawrence Kolberg’s approach to moral education. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Quirk, K.; Keith, T. y Quirk, J. (2002). Employment during high school and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis of national data. The Journal of Educational Research, 95 (1), 4-10

Ridell, A. (1997). Assessing designs school effectiveness research and school improvement in developing countries. Comparative Education Review, 41 (2), 178-204.

Sammons, P., Thomas, S. y Mortimore, P. (1997). Forging link: Effective schools and effective departments. Londres: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Scheerens, J. y Bosker, R. (1997). The foundation of educational effectiveness. Oxford: Pergamon.

Schreiber, J. B. (2002). Institutional and student factors and their influence on advanced mathematics achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95 (5), 274-286

Singh, K. (1998). Part-time employment in high school and its effect on academic achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 91 (1), 31-139.

Steinberg, L. y Dornbush, S. M. (1991). Negative correlates of part-time employment during adolescence: Replication and elaboration. Development Psychology, 27 (2), 304-313.

Steinberg, L. y Kaufman, E. (1995). The impact of employment on adolescent development. Annals of Child Development, 11 (1), 131-166.

Tagiuri, R. (1968). The concept of organizational climate. En R Tagiuri y G. H. Litwin (Eds.), Organizational climate: Exploration of a concept. Boston, MA: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, Division of Research.

Thomas, S. (2001). Dimensions of secondary school effectiveness: Comparative analyses across regions. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12 (3), 285-322.

Tsai, S. L. y Walberg, H. J. (1983). Mathematic achievement and attitude productivity in junior high school. The Journal of Educational Research, 76 (5), 267-272.