El trabajo de observación del adulto mayor. Una herramienta pedagógica para modificar actitudes ageístas en estudiantes de psicología

Daniel Serrani Azcurra


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Resumen


Las actitudes ageístas de los estudiantes representan un obstáculo para el desarrollo de conocimientos y la empatía requeridas para asistir a las personas mayores. El objetivo que persigue este trabajo es evaluar los cambios en actitudes explícitas e implícitas y en conocimientos sobre personas mayores en una muestra de estudiantes de Psicología, antes y después de llevar a cabo una tarea práctica denominada “Trabajo de observación del adulto mayor” (TOAM). Para ello, se evaluaron los cambios en los conocimientos explícitos mediante el Palmore’s Facts on Ageing Quizzes 1 y 2 (FAQs1-2), las modificaciones en las actitudes explícitas mediante la Kogan’s Scale for Attitudes toward Old People (SATOP) y el Age Group Evaluation and Description (AGED) Inventory (AGED). Las modificaciones en actitudes implícitas posteriores se evaluaron con un Test de Asociación Implícita (TAI). Los cambios se midieron una semana, tres meses, un año y dos años después de completar el TOAM con test de ANOVA, U de Mann-Whitney y Kruskall-Wallis Después de realizar el TOAM se observaron cambios positivos en conocimientos y actitudes explícitas hacia las personas mayores, pero las actitudes implícitas permanecieron negativas en las primeras evaluaciones y solamente se modificaron después del año.

Palabras clave


Desarrollo del adulto mayor; actitudes ageistas; investigación pedagógica; Psicología.

Referencias


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