Efectos de un programa de capacitación de profesores en el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento crítico en estudiantes universitarios en el Sureste de México

Susana Guzmán Silva, Pedro Antonio Sánchez Escobedo





Resumen


El presente estudio tuvo como propósito obtener evidencia acerca del efecto de un programa de capacitación para profesores de una institución de educación superior del sureste de México: la Universidad del Mayab (Unimayab). El grupo experimental se conformó con los estudiantes de nueve profesores que durante el semestre primavera de 2003, dieron algún curso en la Unimayab (n = 219). Se invitaron a otros nueve grupos paralelos a participar como grupo de control (n = 218). Al principio y al fin del semestre los participantes contestaron la prueba California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Los resultados muestran diferencias significativos en las dimensiones que mide esta prueba, a excepción de la habilidad de análisis. Las observaciones de las prácticas docentes también mostraron mejores estrategias en los maestros que habían tomado el programa de capacitación. Se concluye que la capacitación docente puede mejorar el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento crítico en los estudiantes, y se discuten las limitaciones del estudio y las implicaciones para el entrenamiento de profesores a nivel licenciatura.

Palabras clave


Pensamiento crítico, formación de maestros en servicio, métodos de enseñanza, educación superior.

Referencias


Adedayo, O. (1999). Differential effectiveness by gender of instructional methods on achievement in mathematics at tertiary level. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 37, 83-91.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. NY: Freeman.

Bloom, B. S. (1990). Taxonomía de los objetivos de la educación. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo.

Bracey, G. W. (2000). The timss final year study and report: a critique. Educational Researcher Online, 29 (4), 4-10. Retrieved June 25, 2006, from: http://edtech.connect.msu.edu/aera/pubs/er/pdf/vol29_04/AERA290402.pdf

Brandsford, J. & Stain, B. (2000). The ideal problem solver. San Francisco: Freeman.

Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

California Academic Press (n.d.). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Retrieved July 16, 2002, from: http://www.insightassessment.com/test-cctst.html

Cambers, A., Carter-Wells, K. B. A., Bagwell, J., Padget, J. G. D., & Thomson, C. (2000). Creative and active strategies to promote critical thinking. In Yearbook of the Claremont Reading Conference (pp. 58-69). Claremont, CA: The Claremont Graduate School. Retrieved march 9, 2002, from: http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/Journals/getIssues.jhtml?sid=HWW:OMNIS&issn=0886-6880

Costa, A. (1985). Developing Minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Distler, S. (1998). Becoming a critical thinker: a user friendly manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory into practice, 32 (3), 179-186.

Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction: Executive summary. The Delphi Report. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.

Facione, N. (1996). Externalizing the critical thinking in knowledge development and clinical judgment. Nursing Outlook, 44, 129-136.

Facione, P. A. (1998). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Millbrae, CA: California Academic Press.

Gallagher, A. M. & De Lisi, R. (1994). Gender differences in scholastic aptitude test mathematics problem solving among high-ability students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (2), 204-211.

Giancarlo, C. A. & Facione P. A. (2001). A look across four years at the disposition toward critical thinking among undergraduate students. The Journal of General Education, 50, (1), 29-55.

Halpern, D. (1996) Thougth and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaum Associates.

Hannel G. & Hannel, L. (1998). Seven steps to teach critical thinking: A practical application of critical thinking skills. NASSP Bulletin, 82, (598), 87-93.

Kerka, S. (1992). High order skills in vocational education. ERIC Digest, 127. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED350487).

Kronberg, J. R. & Griffin,M. S. (2000). Analysis problems. A means to developing students? critical-thinking. Journal of College Science Teaching, 29 (5), 348-352.

Laskey, M. L. & Gibson, P. W. (1997). College study strategies: Thinking and learning. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Leming, J. S. (1998). Some critical thoughts about the teaching of critical thinking. The Social Studies, 89 (2), 61-66.

Manual de Filosofía Legionaria. (2002). Unpublished document, Universidad del Mayab, Yucatan, Mexico.

Marzano, R. J. (1999). A different kind of classroom: Teaching with dimensions of learning. Alexandria,VA: ASCD.

Marzano, R. J. (2001). Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. California: Corwing Press.

Marzano, R. J. (1992). The many faces of cooperation across of dimensions of learning. In N. Davidson & T. Worsham (Eds.), Enhancing thinking through cooperative learning (Chapter II). NY: Teachers College Press.

Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in school, translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Marzano, R. J. & Pickering, D. J. (1997). Dimensions of learning. VA: ASCD.

Marzano, R. J., Brand, R., Hughes, C., Jones, B., Presseinsen, B., Ranking, S. et al. (1988). Dimensions of thinking. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & McTighe, J. (1993). Assessing student outcomes. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Mayer R. E. (1998). Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving. Instructional Science, 26, 49-63.

Nickerson, R. S. (1994). The teaching of thinking and problem solving. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Thinking and problem solving, (pp. 409-449). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Palomba, C. A. & Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment essentials: Planning, implementing and improving assessment in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Potts, B. (994). Strategies for teaching critical thinking. ERIC/AE Digest (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED385606).

Slavin, R. E., (2003). Educational Psychology: Theory and practice. Boston, Massachusets: Allyn and Bacon.

Sormunen, C. & Chalupa, M. (1994). Critical thinking skills research: developing evaluation skills. Journal of Education for Business, 69 (3), 172-177.

Sternberrg, R. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triadic theory of human intelligence. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Tiedemann, J. (2000). Gender related beliefs of teachers in elementary school mathematics. Educational Studies of Mathematics, 41, 191-207.

Wigfield, A. & Byrnes, J. P. (1999). Does math-factor retrieval explain sex differences in mathematical test performance? A commentary. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 275-285.