El uso de mapas conceptuales como instrumento de evaluación del aprovechamiento en ciencias: lo que sabemos hasta ahora.

María Araceli Ruiz Primo

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En este artículo se describe el uso de mapas conceptuales como instrumento de evaluación para medir la organización del conocimiento proposicional (declarativo) del aprovechamiento en ciencias. Como instrumento de evaluación, un mapa conceptual está constituído por una tarea que invita al estudiante a representar la organización de su conocimiento en un tópico específico; un formato de respuesta; y una sistema de calificación. Un problema de interpretación de constructo que plantea el uso de mapas conceptuales consiste en que distintos tipos de tarea, formato de respuesta, y sistema de calificación dan como resultado diversas técnicas de mapas conceptuales que pueden producir en los estudiantes distintas formas de representación del conocimiento. Este artículo presenta un panorama de la investigación de los mapas conceptuales como instrumento evaluativo. Se describen brevemente algunos estudios que han evaluado la confiabilidad y la validez de los mapas conceptuales y se presenta una síntesis de lo que hasta ahora se sabe de este tipo de instrumento.

Palabras clave

Evaluación basada en mapas conceptuales; evaluación del conocimiento de los estudiantes; evaluación alternativa en ciencias.


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