Raza, clase y reproducción cultural: Teorías críticas en educación urbana

Elaine M. Walker

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A pesar los intentos de reformas educativas en Estados Unidos por décadas, la educación urbana continúa siendo un punto de discusión política sin solución para los educadores. Los datos a nivel nacional y estatal aún muestran disparidades en el aprovechamiento y el logro académico en estudiantes de comunidades urbanas pobres y de mucha afluencia (sobrepobladas). Si las políticas pasadas no han demostrado ser efectivas en mejorar sustancialmente los sistemas educativos urbanos, la pregunta es ¿por qué? En este artículo el argumento es que las carencias de las políticas educativas urbanas tienen su origen en su fundamentación epistemológica. Las políticas están divorciadas del entendimiento de la “problemática urbana”. En dirección de estas políticas, los funcionalistas han buscado, en gran parte, “arreglar” las escuelas urbanas con un enfoque en puntos de discusión microecológicos. En este artículo se exploran tres perspectivas teóricas en cuanto a su contribución potencial para proporcionar información a la investigación y a las políticas de la educación urbana. Estas tres perspectivas son: 1) teorías de clase, 2) teoría crítica de la raza y 3) teorías de la reproducción cultural.

Palabras clave

Teoría crítica; educación urbana; teoría crítica de la raza.


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