Relaciones entre composición estudiantil, proceso escolar y el logro en matemáticas en la educación secundaria en Argentina

Rubén Alberto Cervini Iturre

Resumen


En este estudio se investigan las relaciones entre la composición estudiantil de la escuela, algunas características del proceso escolar –cultura y clima– según percepciones del alumno, y el rendimiento en matemáticas de los alumnos del último año de secundaria en Argentina. Se utilizan los datos del Censo Nacional de Finalización del Nivel Secundario de 1998, que fue realizado por el Ministerio de Cultura y Educación de la nación. El archivo es de 135 mil alumnos en 2,708 escuelas de 25 estados. Se aplica la técnica de análisis estadístico multinivel con tres niveles: alumnos, escuela y estado. Se detectó una estrecha relación entre el rendimiento en matemáticas y las variables composición y proceso escolar. Cuando ambas variables actúan conjuntamente, el efecto de otras variables experimenta un descenso pronunciado. Aunque reducido, las variables del proceso influyen en el logro del alumno. Se identificó un modelo de referencia para futuros trabajos que evalúen otros factores institucionales del aprendizaje.

Palabras clave


Logro escolar; educación secundaria; factores institucionales; clima escolar; cultura escolar.

Citas


Aitkin, M. y Longford, N. (1986). Statistical modelling issues in school effectiveness. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 149 (A), 1-42.

Anderson, C. S. (1982). The search for school climate: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (4), 368-420.

Angell, A. (1991). Democratic climate in elementary classroom: A review of theory

and research. Theory and Research in Social Education, 19 (3), 241-266.

Angus, L. (1993). The sociology of school effectiveness. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 14 (3), 333-345.

Barr, R. y Dreeben, R. (1983). How schools work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1988). La distinción. Criterios y bases sociales del gusto. Madrid: Taurus.

Bourdieu, P. y Passeron, C. (1981). La reproducción. Elementos para una teoría del sistema de enseñanza. Barcelona: Laia.

Bryk, A. (1988). Musing on the moral life of schools. American Journal of Education, 96 (2), 256-90.

Bryk, A. y Raudenbush, S. (1992). Hierarchical linear models for social and behavioral research: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Carroll, J. B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64 (8), 723-733.

Cervini, R. (2002). Desigualdades socioculturales en el aprendizaje de matemática y lengua de la educación secundaria en Argentina: Un modelo de tres niveles. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa, 8 (2), 1-25. Consultado el 24 de Octubre de 2002, en: http://www.uv.es/RELIEVE/v8n2/RELIEVEv8n2_1.htm

Cervini, R. (2003). Diferencias de resultados cognitivos y no-cognitivos entre estudiantes de escuelas públicas y privadas en la educación secundaria de Argentina: Un análisis multinivel. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11 (5). Consultado el 10 de febrero de 2003, en: http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v11n6/

Coe, R. y Taylor, C. (1998). School effectiveness research: criticism and recommendations. Oxford Review of Education, 24 (4), 421-438.

Coleman, J., Hoffer, T. y Kilgore, S. (1982a). Cognitive outcomes in public and private schools. Sociology of Education, 55 (2-3), 65-76.

Coleman, J. Hoffer, T. y Kilgore, S. (1982b). High school achievement: Public, catholic and private schools compared. Nueva York: Basic Book.

Creemers, B. (1994). Effective instruction: An empirical basis for a theory of educational effectiveness. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. Nesselrodt, E. Schaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in school effectiveness research and practice (pp.189-203). Oxford: Pergamon.

Daly, P. y Ainley, J. (2000). Recent critiques of school effectiveness research. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11 (1), 131-143.

Dunn, R. y Harris, L. (1998). Organizational dimensions of climate and the impact on school achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 25 (2), 100-114.

Fraser, B. (1989). Twenty years of classroom climate work: Progress and prospect. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21 (4), 307-327.

Gamoran, A. (1987). The stratification of high school learning opportunities. Sociology of Education, 60 (3), 135-155.

Gerwitz, S. (1998). Can all school be successful? An exploration of determinants of school “success”. Oxford Review of Education, 24 (4), 131-143.

Gibson, A. y Asthana, S. (1998). School performance, school effectiveness and the 1997 White Paper. Oxford Review of Education, 24 (2), 195-210.

Goldstein, H. (1987). Multilevel models in educational and social research. Londres: Griffin.

Goldstein, H. (1998). A response to Gibson and Asthana. Oxford Review of Education, 24 (4), 521-523.

Hallinan, M. (1988). School composition and learning: A critique of the Dreeben-Barr model. Sociology of Education, 61 (3) pp.143-146.

Kreft, I. (1993). Using multilevel analysis to assess school effectiveness: A study of Dutch secondary education. Sociology of Education, 66 (2), 104-129.

Leiter, J. (1983). Classroom composition and achievement gains. Sociology of Education, 56 (3), 126-132.

Moos, R. (1979). Evaluating educational environments. Washington, DC: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Moors, R. (1980). Evaluating classroom learning environments. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 6 (3), 239-252.

Moors, R. (1987). The social climate manual (2a. ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Opdenakker, M. y Van Damme, J. (2001). Relationship between school composition and characteristics of school process and their effect on mathematics achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 27 (4), 407-432.

Power, F., Higgins, A. y Kohlberg, L. (1989). Lawrence Kolberg’s approach to moral education. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Purkey, S. C. y Smith, M. (1983). Effective schools: a review. Elementary School Journal, 83 (4), 427-52.

Raudenbush S. y Bryk, A. (1986). A hierarchical model for studying school effects. Sociology of Education, 59 (1),1-17.

Resh, N. y Dar, Y. (1992). Learning segregation in junior high-school in Israel: causes and consequences. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 3 (3), 272-292.

Reynolds, D., Creemers, B., Nesselrodt, P., Schaffer E., Stringfield, S. y Teddlie, C. (1994). Advances in school effectiveness research and practice. Oxford: Pergamon.

Ridell, A. (1993). The evidence on public/private educational trade-offs in developing countries. International Journal of Educational Development, 13 (4), 373-386.

Ridell, A. (1997). Assessing designs school effectiveness research and school improvement in developing countries. Comparative Education Review, 41 (2), 178-204.

Rowan, B. (1990). Commitment and control: Alternative strategies for de organizational design of school. Review of Research in Education, 16 (4), 359-89.

Scheerens, J. y Bosker, R. (1997). The foundation of educational effectiveness. Oxford: Pergamon.

Scheerens, J. y Creemers, B. (1989). Conceptualizing school effectiveness. International Journal of Educational Research, 13 (7), 691-706.

Slavin, R. (1996). Salas de clase efectivas, escuelas efectivas: Plataforma de investigación para la reforma educativa en América Latina. Santiago: Programa de Promoción de la Reforma Educativa en América Latina y el Caribe.

Slee, R., Weiner, G. y Tomlinson, S. (Eds.). (1998). School effectiveness for whom? Londres: Falmer Press.

Stringfield, S. (1994). The analysis of large data bases in school effectiveness research. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. Nesselrodt, E. Schaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in school effectiveness research and practice (pp.55-72). Oxford: Pergamon.

Teddlie, C. (1994a). The integration of classroom and school process data in school effectiveness research. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. Nesselrodt, E. Schaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in school effectiveness research and practice (113-132). Oxford: Pergamon.

Teddlie, C. (1994b). The study in school effects research: History, method, results, and theoretical implications. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. Nesselrodt, E. Schaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in school effectiveness research and practice (85-110). Oxford: Pergamon.

Teddlie, C. y Reynolds, D. (2000). International handbook of school effectiveness research. Londres: Falmer Press.

Teddlie, C. y Reynolds, D. (2001). Countering the critics: Responses to recent criticism of school effectiveness research. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12 (1), 41-82.

Thrupp, M. (2001a). Recent school effectiveness counter-critiques: problems and possibilities. British Educational Research Journal, 27 (4), 443-457.

Thrupp, M. (2001b). Sociological and political concerns about school effectiveness research: Time for a new research agenda. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12 (1), 7-40.

Yasumoto, J., Uekawa, K. y Bidwell, C. (2001). The collegial focus and high school students’ achievement. Sociology of Education, 74 (3), 181-209.

Waxman, H. C. y Ellett, C. D. (Eds.). (1992). The study of learning environments. Houston, TX: University of Houston.

Weick, K. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21 (1), 1-19.


Texto completo: HTML PDF HTML (English) PDF (English)

Refbacks

  • No hay Refbacks actualmente.




http://redie.uabc.mx